Care Act s41-50

Section 41 – Financial adjustments between local authorities

(1)  This section applies where—

(a)  a local authority has been meeting an adult’s needs for care and support, but
(b)  it transpires (whether following the determination of a dispute under section 40 or otherwise) that the adult was, for some or all of the time
that the authority has been meeting the adult’s needs, ordinarily resident in the area of another local authority.

(2)  This section also applies where—

(a)  a local authority has been meeting a carer’s needs for support, but (b)  it transpires (whether following the determination of a dispute under
section 40 or otherwise) that the adult needing care was, for some or all of the time that the authority has been meeting the carer’s needs,
ordinarily resident in the area of another local authority.

(3)  The local authority concerned may recover from the other local authority the amount of any payments it made towards meeting the needs in question at a time when the other local authority was instead liable to meet them under section 18 or 20(1) (as the case may be).

(4)  Subsection (3) does not apply to payments which are the subject of a deferred payment agreement entered into by the local authority in question, unless it agrees with the other local authority to assign its rights and obligations under the deferred payment agreement to that other authority.

(5)  Any period during which a local authority was meeting the needs in question under section 19 or 20(6) is to be disregarded for the purposes of this section.
The Government’s Explanatory Notes to the Bill for this Act say as follows:

“Following a dispute under section 40, or by some other process, it may become apparent that a local authority has been funding a person’s care and support when that person is not in fact ordinarily resident in their area.  In such circumstances, section 41 allows for that local authority to reclaim the costs they have paid for that person’s care and support from the local authority where they are or were ordinarily resident.  This section does not apply where the local authority has chosen to meet the person’s needs in the knowledge they are ordinarily resident elsewhere.”

 

Section 42 – Enquiry by local authority

(1)  This section applies where a local authority has reasonable cause to suspect that an adult in its area (whether or not ordinarily resident there)—

(a)  has needs for care and support (whether or not the authority is meeting any of those needs),
(b)  is experiencing, or is at risk of, abuse or neglect, and
(c)  as a result of those needs is unable to protect himself or herself against the abuse or neglect or the risk of it.

(2)  The local authority must make (or cause to be made) whatever enquiries it thinks necessary to enable it to decide whether any action should be taken in the adult’s case (whether under this Part or otherwise) and, if so, what and by whom.

(3)  “Abuse” includes financial abuse; and for that purpose “financial abuse” includes—

(a)  having money or other property stolen,
(b)  being defrauded,
(c)  being put under pressure in relation to money or other property, and
(d)  having money or other property misused.
The Government’s Explanatory Notes to the Bill for this Act say as follows:

“This section places a duty on local authorities to make enquiries, or to ask others to make enquiries, where they reasonably suspect that an adult in its area is at risk of neglect or abuse, including financial abuse. The purpose of the enquiry is to establish with the individual and/or their representatives, what, if any, action is required in relation to the situation; and to establish who should take such action. It supplements the existing obligations on other organisations to look after the people in their care effectively, or, in the case of the police, to prevent and respond to criminal activity.

Subsection (1) provides that the local authorities’ enquiry duty applies to adults who have care and support needs (regardless of whether they are currently receiving support, from the local authority or indeed anyone); and who are either at risk of or experiencing neglect or abuse, including financial abuse; but are unable to protect themselves. The eligibility criteria that the local authority sets for services and support are not relevant in relation to safeguarding. Safeguarding enquiries should be made on the understanding of the risk of neglect or abuse, irrespective of whether the individual would meet the criteria for the provision of services.  The local authority has a responsibility to make enquiries if the adult is currently in its geographical area of responsibility (whether or not the person is ordinarily resident there).”

 

Section 43 – Safeguarding Adults Boards

(1)  Each local authority must establish a Safeguarding Adults Board (an “SAB”) for its area.

(2)  The objective of an SAB is to help and protect adults in its area in cases of the kind described in section 42(1).

(3)  The way in which an SAB must seek to achieve its objective is by co-coordinating and ensuring the effectiveness of what each of its members does.

(4)  An SAB may do anything which appears to it to be necessary or desirable for the purpose of achieving its objective.

(5)  Schedule 2 (which includes provision about the membership, funding and other resources, strategy and annual report of an SAB) has effect.

(6)  Where two or more local authorities exercise their respective duties under subsection (1) by establishing an SAB for their combined area—

(a)  a reference in this section, section 44 or Schedule 2 to the authority establishing the SAB is to be read as a reference to the authorities
establishing it, and
(b)  a reference in this section, that section or that Schedule to the SAB’s area is to be read as a reference to the combined area.
The Government’s Explanatory Notes to the Bill for this Act say as follows:

“This section requires a local authority to establish a Safeguarding Adults Board (SAB), which aims to help and protect individuals who it believes to have care and support needs and who are at risk of neglect and abuse and unable to protect themselves, and to promote their wellbeing.  Subsection (3) sets out how the SAB should seek to achieve its objective, through the co-ordination of members’ activities in relation to safeguarding and ensuring the effectiveness of what those members do for safeguarding purposes. An SAB may undertake any lawful activity which may help it achieve its objective. The functions which an SAB can exercise in pursuit of its objective are those of its members.  Subsection (6) acknowledges that two or more local authorities may establish an SAB for their combined geographical area of responsibility.  Further details about SABs are set out in Schedule 2.”

 

Section 44 – Safeguarding adults reviews

(1)  An SAB must arrange for there to be a review of a case involving an adult in its area with needs for care and support (whether or not the local authority has been meeting any of those needs) if—

(a)  there is reasonable cause for concern about how the SAB, members of it or other persons with relevant functions worked together to safeguard the adult, and
(b)  condition 1 or 2 is met.

(2)  Condition 1 is met if—

(a)  the adult has died, and
(b)  the SAB knows or suspects that the death resulted from abuse or neglect (whether or not it knew about or suspected the abuse or neglect
before the adult died).

(3)  Condition 2 is met if—

(a)  the adult is still alive, and
(b)  the SAB knows or suspects that the adult has experienced serious abuse or neglect.

(4)  An SAB may arrange for there to be a review of any other case involving an adult in its area with needs for care and support (whether or not the local
authority has been meeting any of those needs).

(5)  Each member of the SAB must co-operate in and contribute to the carrying out of a review under this section with a view to—

(a)  identifying the lessons to be learnt from the adult’s case, and
(b)  applying those lessons to future cases.
The Government’s Explanatory Notes to the Bill for this Act say as follows:

“This section requires Safeguarding Adults Boards to conduct a Safeguarding Adults Review into certain cases in specific circumstances. The aim of a review is to ensure that lessons are learned from such cases, not to allocate blame but to improve future practice and partnership working, and to minimise the possibility of it happening again.  Subsections (1) to (3) stipulate that an SAB must arrange for a review where there is reasonable cause for concern about how the SAB, its members or some other person involved in the case worked together and either the adult has died and the SAB knows or suspects that the death resulted from abuse or neglect or the adult is still alive and the SAB knows or suspects that the adult has experienced serious abuse or neglect. This does not prevent the SAB carrying out a Safeguarding Adults Review in any other case where they feel it would be appropriate and this is set out in subsection (4).  Subsection (5) specifies that every member of the SAB must co-operate in and contribute to carrying out the review and applying the lessons learnt.”

 

Section 45 – Supply of information

(1)  If an SAB requests a person to supply information to it, or to some other person specified in the request, the person to whom the request is made must comply with the request if—

(a)  conditions 1 and 2 are met, and
(b)  condition 3 or 4 is met.

(2)  Condition 1 is that the request is made for the purpose of enabling or assisting the SAB to exercise its functions.

(3)  Condition 2 is that the request is made to a person whose functions or activities the SAB considers to be such that the person is likely to have information relevant to the exercise of a function by the SAB.

(4)  Condition 3 is that the information relates to—

(a)  the person to whom the request is made,
(b)  a function or activity of that person, or
(c)  a person in respect of whom that person exercises a function or engages in an activity.

(5)  Condition 4 is that the information—

(a)  is information requested by the SAB from a person to whom information was supplied in compliance with another request under
this section, and
(b)  is the same as, or is derived from, information so supplied.

(6)  Information may be used by the SAB, or other person to whom it is supplied under subsection (1), only for the purpose of enabling or assisting the SAB to exercise its functions.
The Government’s Explanatory Notes to the Bill for this Act say as follows:

“This section provides that, if certain conditions are met, a person or body must supply information to a SAB at its request.  Firstly, the information must be requested for the purpose of enabling or assisting the SAB to perform its functions.  Secondly, the person or body requested to supply the information must have functions or engage in activities such that the SAB considers it likely to have information relevant to a function of the SAB. This would potentially encompass, for instance, a GP who provided medical advice or treatment to an adult in respect of whom a SAB was carrying out a serious case review, or to a family member or carer of that adult. It would also potentially encompass a person carrying out voluntary work that brought him or her into contact with such an adult or with a family member or carer, or a minister of a church attended by such an adult or by a family member or carer.  Finally, either the condition set out in subsection (4) or that set out in subsection (5) of
the section must be met. Subsection (4) relates to the content of the information that may be requested. Subsection (5) effectively enables the onward transmission to a SAB of information that it has previously requested, under the section, to be supplied to a third party, for instance to a NHS body, for collation and onward transmission to the SAB. (But an SAB may request that information be supplied to a third party for collation and onward transmission only if the third party itself is within subsection (3)).  Subsection (6) provides that an SAB may use information provided under this section only for the purposes of its functions.”

 

Section 46 – Abolition of local authority’s power to remove persons in need of care

Section 47 of the National Assistance Act 1948 (which gives a local authority power to remove a person in need of care from home) ceases to apply to persons in England.
The Government’s Explanatory Notes to the Bill for this Act say as follows:

“This section repeals the current power for local authorities to remove people from their homes under section 47 of the National Assistance Act 1948.”

 

Section 47 – Protecting property of adults being cared for away from home

(1)  This section applies where—

(a)  an adult is having needs for care and support met under section 18 or 19 in a way that involves the provision of accommodation, or is
admitted to hospital (or both), and
(b)  it appears to a local authority that there is a danger of loss or damage to movable property of the adult’s in the authority’s area because—

(i)  the adult is unable (whether permanently or temporarily) to protect or deal with the property, and
(ii)  no suitable arrangements have been or are being made.

(2)  The local authority must take reasonable steps to prevent or mitigate the loss or damage.

(3)  For the purpose of performing that duty, the local authority—

(a)  may at all reasonable times and on reasonable notice enter any premises which the adult was living in immediately before being
provided with accommodation or admitted to hospital, and
(b)  may deal with any of the adult’s movable property in any way which is reasonably necessary for preventing or mitigating loss or damage.

(4)  A local authority may not exercise the power under subsection (3)(a) unless—

(a)  it has obtained the consent of the adult concerned or, where the adult lacks capacity to give consent, the consent of a person authorised under
the Mental Capacity Act 2005 to give it on the adult’s behalf, or
(b)  where the adult lacks capacity to give consent and there is no person so authorised, the local authority is satisfied that exercising the power
would be in the adult’s best interests.

(5)  Where a local authority is proposing to exercise the power under subsection (3)(a), the officer it authorises to do so must, if required, produce valid
documentation setting out the authorisation to do so.

(6)  A person who, without reasonable excuse, obstructs the exercise of the power under subsection (3)(a)—

(a)  commits an offence, and
(b)  is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding level 4 on the standard scale.

(7)  A local authority may recover from an adult whatever reasonable expenses the authority incurs under this section in the adult’s case.
The Government’s Explanatory Notes to the Bill for this Act say as follows:

“This section restates the duty originally set out at section 48 of the National Assistance Act 1948, for local authorities to prevent or mitigate loss or damage to the property of adults who have been admitted to a hospital or to a residential care home, and are unable to protect it or deal with it themselves. This duty applies to any tangible, physical moveable property belonging to the adult in question. The section also re-enacts an offence associated with this duty, found at section 55 of the National Assistance Act 1948, which sets out that any person who obstructs the local authority’s exercise of this duty is liable on summary conviction to pay a fine, and provides a defence of reasonable excuse.  Local authorities are able to recover from the adult any reasonable expenses incurred in protecting that adult’s property.”

 

Section 48 – Temporary duty on local authority

(1)  This section applies where a person registered under Chapter 2 of Part 1 of the Health and Social Care Act 2008 (a “registered care provider”) in respect of the carrying on of a regulated activity (within the meaning of that Part) becomes unable to carry on that activity because of business failure.

(2)  A local authority must for so long as it considers necessary (and in so far as it is not already required to do so) meet those of an adult’s needs for care and support and those of a carer’s needs for support which were, immediately before the registered care provider became unable to carry on the regulated activity, being met by the carrying on of that activity in the authority’s area by the provider.

(3)  A local authority is accordingly required to meet needs under subsection (2) regardless of—

(a)  whether the relevant adult is ordinarily resident in its area;
(b)  whether the authority has carried out a needs assessment, a carer’s assessment or a financial assessment;
(c)  whether any of the needs meet the eligibility criteria.

(4)  Where a local authority is meeting needs under subsection (2), it is not required to carry out a needs assessment, a carer’s assessment or a financial assessment or to determine whether any of the needs meet the eligibility criteria.

(5)  A local authority may make a charge for meeting needs under subsection (2) (except in so far as doing so involves the provision of information or advice); and a charge under this subsection may cover only the cost that the local authority incurs in meeting the needs to which the charge applies.

(6)  Subsection (5) does not apply if section 49 (cross-border cases) applies (see subsection (3) of that section).

(7)  If the relevant adult is not ordinarily resident in the area of the local authority which is required to meet needs under subsection (2), that authority—

(a)  must, in meeting needs under that subsection which were being met under arrangements made by another local authority, co-operate with
that authority (in so far as it is not already required to do so by section 6);
(b)  must, in meeting needs under that subsection which were being met under arrangements all or part of the cost of which was paid for by
another local authority by means of direct payments, co-operate with that authority (in so far as it is not already required to do so by section 6);
(c)  may recover from the other local authority mentioned in paragraph (a) or (b) (as the case may be) the cost it incurs in meeting those of the
adult’s or carer’s needs referred to in the paragraph in question.

(8)  Any dispute between local authorities about the application of this section is to be determined under section 40 as if it were a dispute of the type mentioned in subsection (1) of that section.

(9)  “The relevant adult” means—

(a)  in a case involving an adult’s needs for care and support, that adult;
(b)  in a case involving a carer’s needs for support, the adult needing care.
The Government’s Explanatory Notes to the Bill for this Act say as follows:

“This section places a duty on local authorities in England to ensure that adults’ needs for care and support (or needs for support in the case of an adult who is a carer) continue to be met when there is a business failure of a provider of care and support who is regulated by the Care Quality Commission.

The duty applies to needs which the authority was not already meeting at the point of the provider failure such as needs which were being met by the provision of services paid for by an individual, or where another local authority is paying for services to meet the needs of a person (or has made a direct payment in respect of those needs). There is no need to apply the duty to needs which the local authority in the area of the provider is already meeting at the time of the provider’s failure because the local authority’s duty to meet those needs does not change simply because there is a business failure of the provider who is meeting the needs for and on behalf the local authority.

Subsection (2) requires that the local authority in whose area the failed care provider was carrying on the regulated activity must meet the needs which the provider is no longer able to meet for so long as it considers necessary. This subsection also makes clear that the duty does not apply in cases where the local authority is already under a duty to meet the needs.

Subsection (3) makes clear that the duty in subsection (2) applies wherever the adult is ordinarily resident and even if the adult does not have eligible needs and the authority has not carried out a needs, carers or financial assessment.  Subsection (4) makes clear that the local authority is not required to carry out any of the assessments referred to in section 9, 10 or 17 or to determine whether any of the needs meet eligibility criteria. The effect of this is to suspend the provisions of sections 9 to 20 for the temporary period during which the local authority is meeting needs under this section because a requirement to do so during this period will delay the provision of a substitute service.

Subsection (5) allows the local authority to charge for needs it meets under subsection
(2) except where it meets needs by providing information and advice.  Subsection (6) provides that subsection (5) does not apply if section 48 applies (i.e. if the failed service provider was meeting some or all of the adult’s needs for support pursuant to arrangements, or in return for payment made with a direct payment, made by a local authority in Wales or Scotland or a Health and Social Care trust in Northern Ireland under the legislative provisions referred to in section 48(1),). This is because in such a case there is provision in section 50(3) for local authorities to recover costs.

Subsection (7) applies when the person to whom the failed provider was providing care is not ordinarily resident in the area of the local authority which has the temporary duty and was having their needs met by the failed provider under arrangements made by another local authority in England or was having the care paid for by direct payments provided by such an authority. It requires the local authority who has the temporary duty to co–operate with the other local authority in respect of those needs and allows the local authority with the temporary duty to recover from the other authority the cost it incurs in meeting those needs during the temporary period.  Subsection (8) applies the ordinary residence dispute resolution procedure in section 40 to any disputes between local authorities about the application of this section (for example as to the duration of the temporary period for which there is a duty to meet needs).”

 

Section 49 – Section 48: Cross-border cases

(1)  This section applies where, in a case within section 48, immediately before the registered care provider became unable to carry on the regulated activity, some or all of the adult’s needs for care and support or the carer’s needs for support were being met by the carrying on of that activity by the provider under arrangements made—

(a)  by a local authority in Wales discharging its duty under section 35 or 40, or exercising its power under section 36 or 45, of the Social Services and Well-being (Wales) Act 2014,

(b)  by a local authority in Scotland discharging its duty under section 12 or 13A of the Social Work (Scotland) Act 1968 or section 25 of the Mental Health (Care and Treatment) (Scotland) Act 2003, or

(c)  by a Health and Social Care trust under Article 15 of the Health and Personal Social Services (Northern Ireland) Order 1972 or section 2 of the Carers and Direct Payments Act (Northern Ireland) 2002.

(2)  This section also applies where, in a case within section 48—

(a)  immediately before the registered care provider became unable to carry on the regulated activity, some or all of the adult’s needs for care and support or the carer’s needs for support were being met by the carrying on of that activity by the provider, and

(b) all or part of the cost of the accommodation or other services provided by the provider to meet those needs was paid for by means of direct payments made—

(i)  under section 50 or 52 of the Social Services and Well-being (Wales) Act 2014,
(ii)  as a result of the choice made by the adult pursuant to section 5 of the Social Care (Self-directed Support) (Scotland) Act 2013, or
(iii)  by virtue of section 8 of the Carers and Direct Payments Act (Northern Ireland) 2002.

(3)  The local authority which is required to meet needs under section 48(2)—

(a)  must, in meeting needs under section 48(2) which were being met by the authority which made the arrangements referred to in subsection (1), co-operate with that authority;

(b)  must, in meeting needs under section 48(2) which were being met by the provision of accommodation or other services all or part of the cost of which was paid for by an authority by means of direct payments as referred to in subsection (2), co-operate with that authority;

(c)  may recover from the authority referred to in paragraph (a) or (b) (as the case may be) the cost it incurs in meeting those of the adult’s or carer’s needs referred to in the paragraph in question;

(d)  may recover from the adult or carer the cost it incurs in meeting those of the adult’s or carer’s needs other than those referred to in paragraph (a) or (b) (as the case may be).

(4)  Any dispute between a local authority and a local authority in Wales, a local authority in Scotland or a Health and Social Care trust about the application of section 48 or of this section is to be resolved in accordance with paragraph 5 of Schedule 1.

(5)  “Local authority in Wales” and “local authority in Scotland” each have the meaning given in paragraph 12 of Schedule 1.

(6)  The references in paragraphs (a) and (b) of subsection (3) to an authority are references to a local authority in Wales, a local authority in Scotland or a Health and Social Care trust (as the case may be).
The Government’s Explanatory Notes to the Bill for this Act say as follows:

“Subsection (1) applies the duty in section 48(2) to cases where the service provider whose business has failed was meeting the person’s needs under arrangements made by a local authority in Wales or Scotland or a Health and Social Care trust in Northern Ireland under the legislative provisions there referred to.

Subsection (2) applies the duty to circumstances where the failed service provider was meeting the person’s needs in return for payment made with a direct payment made by an authority in Wales or Scotland or trust in Northern Ireland under the legislative provisions referred to in subparagraphs (i) to (iii) of paragraph (b).

Subsection (3) provides that the local authority in England must cooperate with the authority or trust who made the arrangements or the direct payment and may recover from that authority or trust the cost it incurs in respect of meeting needs which were being provided pursuant to those arrangements or purchased with the direct payment. It also allows the authority to recover the cost of meeting other needs from the adult – for example needs which the service provider was meeting under separate arrangements made by the adult.

Subsection (4) provides that any dispute between a local authority in England and an authority in Wales or Scotland or a trust in Northern Ireland must be resolved in accordance with the dispute resolution procedure in paragraph 5 of Schedule 1.”

 

Section 50 – Temporary duty on local authority in Wales

(1)  This section applies where a person registered under Part 2 of the Care Standards Act 2000 in respect of an establishment or agency—

(a)  becomes unable to carry on or manage the establishment or agency because of business failure, and

(b)  immediately before becoming unable to do so, was providing an adult with accommodation or other services in Wales under arrangements
made—

(i)  by a local authority meeting an adult’s needs for care and support or a carer’s needs for support under Part 1 of this Act,
(ii)  by a local authority in Scotland discharging its duty under section 12 or 13A of the Social Work (Scotland) Act 1968 or section 25 of the Mental Health (Care and Treatment) (Scotland) Act 2003, or
(iii)  by a Health and Social Care trust under Article 15 of the Health and Personal Social Services (Northern Ireland) Order 1972 or section 2 of the Carers and Direct Payments Act (Northern Ireland) 2002.

(2)  This section also applies where a person registered under Part 2 of the Care Standards Act 2000 in respect of an establishment or agency—

(a)  becomes unable to carry on or manage the establishment or agency because of business failure, and

(b)  immediately before becoming unable to do so, was providing an adult with accommodation or other services in Wales all or part of the cost of which was paid for by means of direct payments made—

(i)  under this Part of this Act,
(ii)  as a result of the choice made by the adult pursuant to section 5 of the Social Care (Self-directed Support) (Scotland) Act 2013, or
(iii)  by virtue of section 8 of the Carers and Direct Payments Act (Northern Ireland) 2002.

(3)  The local authority in Wales in whose area the accommodation is situated or the services were provided must for so long as it considers necessary meet those of the adult’s needs for care and support or the carer’s needs for support which were being met by the registered person by the provision of the accommodation or other services.

(4)  A local authority in Wales which is required to meet needs under subsection (3)—

(a)  must, in meeting needs under that subsection which were being met by the authority which made the arrangements referred to in subsection
(1)(b), co-operate with that authority;

(b)  must, in meeting needs under subsection (3) which were being met by the provision of accommodation or other services all or part of the cost
of which was paid for by an authority by means of direct payments as referred to in subsection (2)(b), co-operate with that authority;

(c)  may recover from the authority referred to in paragraph (a) or (b) (as the case may be) the cost it incurs in meeting those of the adult’s or
carer’s needs referred to in the paragraph in question.

(5)  Any dispute about the application of this section is to be resolved in accordance with paragraph 5 of Schedule 1.

(6)  “Local authority in Wales” and “local authority in Scotland” each have the meaning given in paragraph 12 of Schedule 1.

(7)  The references in paragraphs (a) and (b) of subsection (4) to an authority are references to a local authority, a local authority in Scotland or a Health and Social Care trust (as the case may be).
The Government’s Explanatory Notes to the Bill for this Act say as follows:

“This section places a duty on local authorities in Wales to ensure that adults’ needs for care and support (or needs for support in the case of an adult who is a carer) continue to be met when a service provider who is registered under Part 2 of the Care Standards Act 2000 becomes unable to carry on or manage their establishment or agency because of business failure. It only applies in relation to needs which the failed service provider was meeting by providing accommodation or services which were paid for with a direct payment, or pursuant to arrangements, made by an authority in England or Scotland or a Health and Social Care trust in Northern Ireland.

Subsections (1) and (2) make clear that the duty applies where a person who is so registered becomes unable to carry on or manage their establishment because of business failure and immediately before that was providing the adult with accommodation or other services in Wales, under arrangements made by a local authority in England or Scotland or a Health and Social Care trust in Northern Ireland under the legislative provisions referred to in subparagraphs (i) to (iii) of paragraph (b) of subsection (1), or which were paid for with a direct payment made by such an authority or trust under the legislative provisions referred to in subparagraphs (i) to (iii) of subsection (2). Subsection (3) requires the local authority in Wales where the service or accommodation was being provided to the adult to meet the needs for so long as the authority considers necessary.  Subsection (4) requires the local authority in Wales to cooperate with the authority or trust which made the arrangements or the direct payments and allows the local authority in Wales to recover the costs it incurs in meeting the adult’s needs for the temporary period from that authority or trust.  Subsection (5) provides that any dispute about the application of these provisions is to be resolved in accordance with the dispute resolution procedure in paragraph 5 of Schedule 1.”

 

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